What’s the magic number of design proofs your clients get?

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How many of your clients absolutely must make a change, no matter how minor (or just to decide that they like yours better) on EVERY project?

Most of them, right?

Mine too.

Give ‘Em What They Want…

People, including your clients, like having options.

They like making decisions, giving input, and feeling like they’ve contributed to a project.

So present multiple proofs and reap these benefits:

  • Take the project in several directions simultaneously
  • Get past the obvious (and often mediocre) ideas
  • Explore multiple color schemes
  • Mix and match elements between proofs in revisions
  • Shows your client you explored various creative avenues
  • Provides a sense of contribution for your client
  • Gives your client the feeling of “getting what they paid for”

Presenting multiple proofs provides our clients an avenue to make choices they are so eager to make. You might even stumble upon

…But Not TOO Much!

Most of you are familiar with “The Jam Experiment,” in which shoppers were significantly more likely to purchase jam when fewer jam types were presented.

In very simplistic and generalized terms, people become paralyzed by too many options and choose nothing.

The jam group conducted a subsequent experiment involving choices of chocolate and perceived satisfaction. While the participants were overall happier to have more options, those that were offered more options were more dissatisfied and regretful of their choice.

In summary, multitudes of options may create the sense of happiness but leads people to second-guess their choices.

The lesson we as designers need to learn is that there is such a thing as too many proofs.

We certainly don’t want to overwhelm our clients. We also don’t want to leave our clients wondering if they’ve made the best selection, throwing us into an unproductive loop of revisiting past proofs as we progress through the project.

So what’s the Magic Number?

My magic number is three (3).

The number three is often associated with visually pleasing arrangements (the Rule of Odds and the Rule of Thirds) and symbolically stands for unity, balance, and completeness (Decoding Design, by Maggie Macnab).

Three gives me the opportunity to show fundamentally different approaches to the project while avoiding the dreaded “well, I’m just not sure. I’m going to email them to my grandmother for her opinion.

Three gives my clients the opportunity to choose (and mix and match) without hampering their ability to commit.

But what about those clients who want to see 15 minor changes over the course of 3 days?

Incredibly frustrating, I know – but I’m about to share a secret with you that will save you time and energy as well as curtail this type of behavior.

The Secret:

Make backup proofs, but don’t present them unless you need them.

True story: I used to work in-house at a vitamin manufacturing plant with an in-house print shop. Our CEO was notorious for wanting to see no less than 20 proofs – one in green, one with a different font, one with the text right aligned…you get the idea.

Because proofing on an offset press is a lot more work than on a computer, our press operator started making backup proofs. He’d make 15 slightly different versions (for you print nerds – by adjusting the ink values) and present the three he liked best.

When our CEO “wondered aloud” what it might look like slightly different, he’d pull out his backup proof to “prove” that adding more magenta made the lady in the proof look sunburned.

Why backup proofs work:

  • Improve your efficiency – from the best proofs, you can quickly make a number of small changes instead of eating up 15 minutes of your time every 2 hours to make yet another tweak
  • Look prepared and thorough in your clients’ eyes
  • Earn your clients’ trust by “thinking of everything”

The Case for a Single Proof

Multiple proofs just don’t make sense for some projects or some phases of projects. Why?

  • The project doesn’t lend itself to multiple proofs
  • You’ve narrowed down the direction of the project
  • You’re putting the finishing touches on a project
  • You have a long-term relationship with your client and have an excellent understanding of what they like/need
  • The project is very similar to another project you’ve worked on with your client
  • Your client is very “hands-off” (and has a history of such behavior)

Examples: You might present three sketches or wireframes of a website, but you’re probably not going to build each home page.

You might sketch out one idea for an infographic.

You might develop a few slides of a PowerPoint presentation in a single theme.

You’re creating a monthly direct mail piece with a new theme…for the seventh consecutive month.

You’ve worked with your client for years and know their style.

Speak Up!

How many proofs do you provide? What is YOUR magic number? Have you ever provided backup proofs on request? Leave a comment on this post!

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Comments

  1. says

    For web designs I only give one proof unless I’m not sure about something because there is really only 1 best way to do something.

    If you have to make 3 proofs there will be one best one and 2 not as good ones and the client picks one of those bad ones 95% of the time.

    • says

      Tyler,

      I agree that often the client chooses the one you like least, or makes revisions such that you’re disappointed with the outcome.

      However, I don’t know if I can agree that there’s only 1 best way to do something. I saw this through my continuing education design class – we’d get our homework and each person would come in with totally unique and interesting solutions to the same assignment. Some were better than others, for sure, but one of the great (and difficult) things about art/design is that “best” is subjective to the audience viewing.

      Thanks for sharing!

    • says

      I’ve always used the 3 pitch when working.

      Back when I was in college and we would be getting our portfolio’s together (originally I was trained in print) the order taught to us was 2nd best piece first, then starting from worst (of the best) to best – ending on your top piece of work.

      When working I’ll have my favourite concept which I think fits the bill the best so now it’s manner of presentation and pitch.

      First concept is the 2nd favourite. Client sees this and goes – I like it, but I don’t want to make a decision until I’ve seen the rest so I’ll hold on this one.

      Second is my least favourite – client sees this and goes, ok, it’s not bad but it’s not as good as the first one. So still thinking number one but still have a mental ‘hold’ on it.

      Third is the favourite so blow them out of the water with this one. Client thinks, ok, first was good, second meh but this one really works.

      Needless to say this doesn’t work all the time but it is very effective. I always offer them to look at the concepts and mix and match the best parts, again they get input. It’s very rare for a client not to make a change, getting the money’s worth.

    • says

      Well said! One proof only for web design. I cant imagine designing 3 different home pages. Thats a lot of unnecessary work! And agree :))) they always choose the worst one :))))

  2. says

    that is so true.
    My magic number is also 3 but i learned it hard ways.If only you had published this some years back i would have escaped such situation.

    great post.

  3. Barb says

    I like to provide 3 ideas/examples/proofs for my initial presentation, I think it’s important to give a few options, even if there is only one major difference (color, font style, etc).

    However, I’m not sure how I feel about the “backup” proofs, unless they just prove a point (like the example given, to show why something they would ask for wouldn’t work). With some of my clients, I can see this happening: You’re presenting your 3 proofs, and they say, “I wonder what it’ll look like ….” So you pull out this surprise backup proof to show them you thought of this too. They’re going to realize you’re holding out on them, that you have other proofs, and undoubtably they’re going to ask to see them all. What can you do? You can’t say “No, you can only see the other proofs if you ask the right questions!”

    Then you’re stuck having your client look at several minor variations, and you’ve just gone from a half hour meeting to an hour and a half while they look at all the proofs and try to discern the difference and then choose what they like.

    • says

      Barb,

      I see your point. I’ve never had that happen to me – guess I’ve been lucky.

      First, and I didn’t specify particularly well, backups are generally better for the revision stage. When you’re presenting your very first concepts is not usually the time to have backups on-hand. Once they’ve chosen the direction they want to go, you can get a feel for what elements they’re most focused on and create backups for those.

      I also think if your client is being that picky about the elements and their treatment, you’re probably in for either 1) Half hour meeting + hours of minor tweaks or 2) Hour and a half meeting + revisions. Either way you’re putting in the time, but this way you get them out of the way up front, especially since a few of them are sure to be awful.

      Also, it’s fair to say (if the meeting’s exponentially growing in length) that you didn’t try whatever they’re asking even if you did. And I’m not suggesting to cover every single variation, rather to hit the changes you think might be most likely to come up.

      The backups idea can be client-specific. It might be a nightmare with some clients and perfect for others. In my particular case, we were doing the 20 revisions regardless for every project (ugh! exhausting), so might as well cover as many bases as possible up front.

      Wow – sorry such a long-winded reply. Does that help? Thanks for making me flush out my idea!

  4. says

    Majority of the time my clients want two proofs, but I’d like to try and only offer one. The reason being is exactly what Tyler said above; I’ll put a lot of effort towards one great design, and it seems that the client loves to pick the worst! I’d love to just plan/focus on one great layout, and not waste time on others just because they’d like to “see” more than one.

    I’m interested to hear what others have to say. Thanks for the great post, April!

    • says

      Brent,

      Remember that putting all of your eggs in one basket can backfire, too. If you miss their mark (regardless of how awesome it is), you’re starting at square one again. You might have to make the decision to either eat those costs or have a conversation about charging the client extra…both of which aren’t terribly appealing.

      Thanks for sharing!

  5. says

    Three is the magic number is what De La Soul say!!!

    Depends on the client and as sort of suggested on the job itself. I tend to have clients (luckily) who just leave me to it or have had clients in the past (not now) who want to get their hands dirty (have a little knowledge and think they are suddenly experts – usually marketing people!!!). Can be time consuming and frustrating suggesting to them what will work but the having to go through every style/colour/fad until they realise you were right in the first place!

    Lucky now my clients are awesome and the best way to deal with number of proofs is to ensure two way communication and a thoroughly detailed brief in the first place and build up a great relationship with the client so you know what they want. Alternatively again about client relationships where you are happy to work together and sing from the same hymn sheet and have the client sit and work with you.

    That’s my experience after 22 years in the design world!

    Hope it adds something?

  6. says

    I’m a web designer and usually provide 3-4 designs (and yes, sometimes the client does choose a design that I do not think is the best!) and this has worked well over the last few years. Unil now!!

    I’ve been developing a website for which a client who has dragged out the project for 8 months… they’ve been sending through 2 pages of content at a time with about 2 weeks between. They have had access to this dev website for the whole period. Anyway, launch date is finally approaching. I finally received the last of the content and last week I spent 2 days testing and adding SEO …. then yesterday I call them to tell them I was sending through the “Authorisation for Launch” form for sign off and they tell me they want to change the design…. and it’s a significant change which will affect the whole structure of the website. The change is going to make the design similar to one of the other initial designs presented 8 months ago…. aaahhhh!!! It’s pretty obvious someone has suddenly got involved in the project and is throwing their weight around.

    I think I am going to have to try to explain the complexity of the change (at this late stage) and advise that I will have to charge extra for the change.

    What would you do?

    Karen

    • says

      Karen,

      Sounds like a terrible client – hopefully the job’s paying well! I’ve been there – I had a project go bad when all along I was sending proofs and getting a thumbs-up and when I presented the final piece they were unhappy with it. They never said, but I’m certain someone new came into the picture last minute.

      Definitely I would explain that a change of this magnitude this late in the game will cost extra. Depending on their web savvy, you can explain why, but try to find something metaphoric that might make sense to them. Like building a house, and now at 90% done, you want to change the room layout. It can be done, but this far along it’s terribly difficult and time-consuming to do.

      Since I’m certain this is something you don’t want to do, make sure it’s worth your time. Make the extra costs significant enough that they’re serious about changing it. Also, (speaking from experience) if you can, save the current layout if possible so that if – God forbid – they decide to switch back, it’s not another big switch (although you should charge accordingly for a switch back using the same explanation).

      How does that sound? Best of luck, Karen!

  7. says

    For websites I’ll usually give one proof of the homepage only. Occasionally I’ll do a second concept if I can’t quite gauge what they are after. Once the homepage is approved the rest of the site get’s designed.

    For print I’ll usually do 3 concepts. If it’s a bigger job (like an annual report) the 3 concepts will be only be a sample of a few key pages so they get the idea of how things will work together.

    For logos I say that they will get between 3 & 5 concepts. I try to only present 3 – 5 but usually have another 15 or so in backup :)

    I think if you go too far beyond 3 you start getting the “mix & match” syndrome. Where the client wants to put the headline from concept 1 with the image from concept 4 but use the colours from concept 6 etc. And it turns into a mess.

  8. Cheli says

    I think I’m a little confused by your terminology as I use words differently in my part of the world ;) I’ve rarely had the problem of lots of tiny design tweaks, my biggest issue is the client tweaking the content long after they’ve supplied it to me!

    Regardless, I solve most of the problem with my design proposal – I tell them how many concepts they’ll receive (I usually try to present three too, but it all depends on how many strong ideas I develop and feel it’s worth presenting, after all showing a weak concept guarantees it will be selected!)

    Then I tell them that at each stage of the project (concept and development usually for print, more if its web because I map out the UX with wireframes before designing the visuals), they get two rounds of amendments. They’re welcome to ask for more changes if they want, but I specify in my T&Cs that that extra work will be charged at $120 p/hr (I always give a heads up before they get to this stage).

    For me, this is a win win situation because the extra cost helps encourage clients to take each draft seriously and really try to think of everything they need changed each round. However if they do want more changes, I don’t feel angry about the scope creep because I’m being compensated for it!

    • says

      Cheli,

      Sorry to confuse you with my American English! :) Where abouts are you from?

      It sounds like you’ve got a great system down, and I love your revisions solution. Very nice…I’m switching from hours of revisions to number of revisions as well, even though I think hours is more equitable for all, because clients just don’t understand how long it’s going to take and then get upset that their “minor” revisions took so long. If it’s a set boundary they understand, it’s a lot easier to charge extra accordingly.

      Thanks for sharing!

      • Cheli says

        I agree – while hours of revisions is more equitable, it’s usually unrealistic to expect a client to predict how long their revisions will take (after all, they don’t do our job, how are they supposed to know?) plus I find counting revisions is easier for a client to understand. I usually try to overestimate how long revisions might take me, and then return the ‘saving’ to the client at the end of the job – I figure if they’re good enough to run a project efficiently with me, It’s good to be able to reward them with a reduced fee :) Having said that, I’m still working on my ability to balance overestimating and quoting a fee that’s acceptable to the client when they first sign up – I usually double guess myself and quote just enough (or sometimes too little…)

        btw, I’m based in Australia, so our language technically has a British base, but I find the UK uses some terms in our industry differently too!

        I know I’ve said this before, but thanks for writing. I really like your tone and you cover topics that I ask myself all the time. It’s particularly cool to see how consistently and carefully you reply to comments as well :)

        • says

          Cheli,

          You and I sound a lot alike – I often feel apologetic and guilty for quoting the prices I do and am working REALLY hard not to feel that way. Most of the time people are like, “Ok, great. Let’s get to work.” and I get a huge wave of relief. It’s why I put my pricing on my website, so that I can reduce the amount of haggling – because I really hate it.

          Thank you so much for your kind words! Writing is a form of education for me – sometimes I have to remind myself to take my own advice. :) I really love getting a discussion going through comments, too – even if we don’t agree. It makes all of us think more critically about how to run a business, and that is a very good thing!

          Best to you, Cheli! It’s for peers like you that make writing here at GDB so gratifying.

          • Anastasia says

            Ha ha. I go through similar problems with quoting, over/under. Although, I usually use my years of professional standing and self-confidence in my work as some sort of hidden gauge and then try to really evaluate time/cost of the project. Is there such a thing as a design psycho-analyst?

            Have a good design day!

    • Anastasia says

      Cheli,
      I agree with your methods. When initiating a project with a client, I define the various stages (rapidly), including what they get for an initial fee and what they will be charged as surplus, if the case arises. In all cases of design (web and print), I give 3 visual proofs, even if it means just tweaking the same template somewhat. Clients are happy to be asked for their opinion and made to feel like ‘they’ have chosen the desired design, even if we have directed them down a particular path. I like to think that all of my proofs are good enough for public view and usually have a favourite, which I develop to a higher standard, hoping that they will choose that one. However, I think that is standard practice as creativity expands while working on one particular idea.
      I believe that by being open and communicating well with a client from the beginning can help to avoid certain drawbacks. In addition, having a business approach and proper management system with projected deadlines not only helps me, but helps a client to keep abreast of budgeting/timeframes and responses to senior staff.
      I have just joined the site and happy to say that after over 20 years of design experience, I am still learning and picking up new tips from my fellow designers!
      Thanks!

  9. Mom says

    Yikes! In educating 2nd graders I am always amazed at the variances they come up with on a project that I never dreamed of. Some very good . . . others not so good. I always teach my kids that there are always multiple ways to solve a problem, create a project, etc. Love, THE MOM

    • says

      True that, Mama Dearest! One of the neatest, and sometimes most challenging, things about design is that “the best solution” is in the eye of the beholder.

      In math, there’s only one right answer, but in design, the possibilities are limitless!

  10. says

    As soon as I started reading I guessed your question at the end would be “how many proofs do you provide”, and I immediately thought 3 for print and logo design… then you stated the exact same thing. Then I started thinking about web design, and how I’ll provide 3 wireframes, but will then only mock-up one actual design (although two to three pages, home, about/info, maybe UI page like a shopping cart if needed)… then you basically stated the exact same thing again.

    Point is, great minds think alike!

    • says

      JasonG,

      Ha ha – sounds like we read from the same book. Glad to know my techniques seem logical to someone else…maybe I’m doing something right! :)

      Thanks for sharing!

  11. says

    It really depends on the budget. If a big company wants to spend money exploring comps, then I charge more and offer more designs. If not my default for logo design is 3, print and web is 1. If for some reason they don’t like my design, then I will do an additional comp, anything past that is charged. I only offer the additional comp to clients that have either worked with me in the past or bring value to the table.

    • says

      DesignFacet,

      I agree with you in that if a company wants to pay for a large range of proofs, I’m very willing to negotiate the price based on that. Most of my conversations start out with, “I generally [insert project type info]…” and see how they respond. If they want more, we can adjust the quote to accommodate that. If they want to pay less, we either pare down the project or I have to say no deal.

      Thanks for sharing!

  12. says

    My magic number is somewhere between 3-5. My contract includes 3, but sometimes I just get inspired and the ideas come pouring out! I haven’t noticed that the extra two cause any further indecision. But from here on out, I’ll be paying closer attention to whether it does or not.

  13. says

    I usually provide 2-3 different design options. I make them different enough so that the client can see the good, the bad and the ugly. I quite often will also hold back many other options so that I don’t have to manage my rage when the client asks for more.

    I sometimes will deliberately include a ‘stinker’ option which is not good, to act as a red herring so the client chooses the one I want them to – all the while making them think it’s their idea. (This can backfire sometimes when they actually choose that design – and I have to spend more time trying to talk them out of it!).

    One thing I also build into my estimates for work is that I offer 3 sets of amendments within the initial price, anything else is charged at an hourly rate. This will often deter a client from asking for multiple design options. Don’t be afraid to remind them of this if things get crazy – time is money after all.

    • says

      Lee,

      I am switching to the 3 revisions as well – prior to this I was allowing x amount of hours, but I’ve realized that it just complicates the billing process as clients don’t understand what revisions take how long and then they wind up upset because they’ve used up their hour allotment. It’s much easier for them to track with a set number of revisions.

      Thanks for sharing! Between you and Cheli (above comment), I’m definitely going this way from now on!

  14. Meredith says

    Lee, I really laughed when I saw your “manage my rage” comment! I know exactly what you mean. Only I have had a few people pick the fugly version I present them. In the end… I do this to make money and sometimes I have to make money designing fugly logos. Every time I have a rage I just remember that I am a great designer and it’s not my fault that some people have horrible taste — I bite my tongue and then agree to the misfit design. Then I spend their money on whatever I want. lol (ok so it’s mostly bills)

  15. says

    I thinks its an industry standard to do 3 but those 3 must look totally different from each other. But it depends because for websites I sometimes do only 2 but with 1 or 2 inner pages.

    • says

      It does seem like the general consensus, doesn’t it? Good to know we’re all on the same page. Sometimes I think just confirming that you’re doing what most people do helps validate your process to both yourself and your clients.

  16. José says

    I love the idea of backup proofs! Really great idea, thank you.
    I try to always submit 3 proofs of completely different directions at the onset of the project.
    Once they pick one, we go in that direction.

  17. says

    I ALWAYS create one homepage design concept.

    I worked in an agency where by the three designers would create a concept each. In a year and a half of working there, only twice did a client pick one of the concepts outright. Usually it was an amalgamation of all three of our designs, which resulted in a mish-mashed design.

    I think more designers should just be confident and offer one design solution. If you’ve collected all the info from the client well enough, you should have a pretty good idea of the direction they want to go.

    • says

      Will,

      Interesting insight – thanks for sharing! Have you ever had a client come back to you and tell you they want to see something totally different?

      I usually provide a sketch/wireframe of three concepts without design elements and let them choose a direction to go. From there, it’s one design concept only.

      Thanks for chiming in!

    • says

      I generally have a grasp on what the client wants too, but offering one design can often leave you in a sticky situation if your client doesn’t like what you’ve come up with. It’s not a question of confidence. It’s about offering a choice – the feedback I’ve received from clients is that they appreciate being given that choice. And after that it’s about managing them right and not letting them create monsters by amalgamating concepts. It comes down to how you present it and standing firm when they start meddling beyond what’s acceptable.

      And think of it this way, if you’re offering 3 design options you can charge for more time, and that means more money.

  18. says

    One thing I’ve had to learn the hard way: it’s not about me. It’s not even about the client’s needs. It’s about the client.

    Being a micro-project freelancer (mostly individuals, small companies or churches), I make it a rule for me to find the perfect medium with my clients. Being it’s a creative project, I approach it as team work. Me + client = team. I have clients who have come back to me time and time again, for small or bigger projects because they know we can brainstorm and develop the project together. And now he’s able to install WordPress and make a bit of his own site/blog. He still hires me for graphic work, and I enjoy that very much.

    I’ve also had clients who have totally only one idea: it’s ALL about them. And these have consistently disfigured my work and even redone some of it (HORROR!) or told me to “go back” to the boring and bland revision, the time “before beauty.” I recently had to end the business relationship with the person who was referring me his clients, and many of them seem to have the same attitude, and that becomes very difficult on many levels. Disheartening. Sometimes “just being paid” isn’t everything. After all, this ends up in our portfolio…

    Developing proper relationships is crucial. I value being candid yet reserved enough to allow a buffer of respect to be maintained toward me. Building up the client’s confidence in themselves is important, but when it gets too “personal,” if the client’s appointed contact starts making it a question of personal ego, directing them to their own team and inviting their own employer’s input could prove to be a solution.

    Thanks for a great post, April!

    Regards,

    Andre

  19. says

    Hi April,
    I really enjoying your articles, thank you :-)
    I’ve been a “graphic designer” of some sort or the other for close on 20 years, and one thing consistently amazes me … if you include a “inferior” design in your proofs, the client WILL choose that one! So I have learned to keep my worst designs to myself :-)

    My hubby and I work together (doing different things in the business). Our philosophy has always been to do unlimited revisions until the client is happy. Knowing that they will get what they want seems to reassure them somehow. But here’s the thing: I usually start with only one or two proofs (for websites, brochures etc), and assure them that we can change or start again if they need to. But more often than not, they are totally excited about what I have presented and don’t want to change a thing!
    I know I’m not the world’s best, but I do a lot of research before starting, and it seems to pay off because their design inevitably looks better than their competition’s.
    When it comes to putting a website together, I try to make things as easily adjustable as possible using stylesheets and library items, so that if they do suddenly want to change horses midstream, it doesn’t take hours of work.
    Logo design is a bit different – I like to present up to 5 options, some very different and some just a variation of font or colour.
    It seems to be working so far :-)

    • says

      Eastcoastjac,

      My only concern is that clients stop valuing your time with unlimited revisions. I state in my contract how many revisions they get til there’s an hourly charge, and I find that clients tend to value my opinions a bit more rather than wanting to see every possible combination. If they do ask, it’s only for their first project…once they see how much time and money they’re wasting, they don’t repeat again.

      However, if your method works for you, go for it. I’m not trying to judge, just offer suggestions and thoughtful discussion.

      Thanks for sharing!

  20. says

    I think two designs are better than three. There is an immediate and very visceral reaction of “I like that more than that” which makes it easier for a client to choose. This is especially true if they don’t have a strong understanding of design to begin with, but even the design savvy have that quick subconscious reaction (though they are more likely to ruminate and question it).

    Currently I present a single design, but I keep any alternate designs created during the process. I’ve only needed them once or twice, but it was nice to have them and not have to start from scratch. I’m lucky though, as my clients trust me to fully understand their objectives and give them something that works.

    My advice to keep proofs to a minimum and garner trust is to have a very thorough initial meeting with your client before you start designing. Make sure that all the stakeholders are there to weigh in on the project’s objectives, to clarify your understanding of them, and hear your ideas and potential approaches. Make this meeting a conversation, not a briefing. I ask for adjectives to describe how people should feel (about them and the design in general) when they come away from the design. And I love when they can bring examples of what they like or dislike, as it gives me a sense of their design aesthetic. If possible, try to get a brief overview before the meeting; it helps you prepare some thoughts and questions in advance.

  21. Ignacio says

    Three, often two is the number for us (me and my partner). One will never be enough for two reasons: first, most of your clients will ask for more. This happened to me along my 10 years of experience. Second, the choice you make could not be the client´s choice and that is why this is subject to different opinions and tastes, no matter the message you deliver with a design project.

    Great artcicle.

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